Teeth are an essential part of the human body. They play a crucial role in our daily lives, from helping us to chew our food to providing us with a beautiful smile. Despite their importance, a lot of people are unaware of what teeth are made of and the complex composition that makes them so strong and durable. Today, we will dive into the composition of teeth, exploring what they are made of, and how their unique structure contributes to their function.

Tooth Composition

Teeth are complex structures, consisting of various layers and tissues that work together to perform their functions. The four main components of teeth are enamel, dentin, pulp, and cementum. Each component has a unique structure and function, contributing to the overall strength and durability of teeth.


Enamel is the outermost layer of teeth and the hardest substance in the human body. It is a thin, translucent layer of calcium phosphate minerals that covers the crown of the tooth, protecting it from wear and tear. Enamel is primarily composed of hydroxyapatite crystals, which give it its strength and durability.

The structure of enamel is highly organized, with tightly packed crystalline rods that run parallel to the surface of the tooth. This structure allows enamel to resist the forces of biting and chewing and protect the underlying layers of the tooth from damage.

Despite its strength, enamel is vulnerable to erosion and decay. Acids produced by bacteria in the mouth can erode the enamel, leading to cavities and other dental problems. Regular brushing, flossing, and dental checkups can help protect enamel and prevent decay.


Dentin is the layer of tissue that lies beneath the enamel and forms the bulk of the tooth. It is a yellowish substance that is softer than enamel but still much harder than bone. Dentin is made up of a complex network of tubules that extend from the pulp to the outer surface of the tooth.

Dentin is rich in collagen, a protein that gives it its flexibility and resilience. The collagen fibers in dentin are embedded in a matrix of calcium phosphate crystals, which provide its strength and durability.

Dentin also contains microscopic channels called dentinal tubules, which run from the pulp to the outer surface of the tooth. These tubules allow for the exchange of fluid and nutrients between the pulp and the outer layers of the tooth.


The pulp is the soft tissue that lies at the center of the tooth. It contains blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue, which supply nutrients and sensation to the tooth. The pulp also plays a vital role in the formation and development of the tooth.

If the pulp becomes infected or damaged, it can lead to pain, swelling, and other dental problems. Root canal therapy is a common treatment for infected or damaged pulp, which involves removing the infected tissue and sealing the root canal.


Cementum is a thin layer of tissue that covers the roots of the teeth. It is softer than enamel and dentin but still harder than bone. Cementum plays an essential role in anchoring the tooth to the jawbone, forming a tight seal around the root of the tooth and attaching it to the periodontal ligament.

Cementum is composed of a combination of collagen fibers and mineralized tissue. It is constantly being resorbed and regenerated throughout life, allowing it to adapt to changes in the position and alignment of the teeth.


Although teeth are designed to be strong and durable, they are susceptible to decay, chipping and staining if proper oral health isn’t maintained. Using a non-comedogenic toothpaste like LIVFRESH can help prevent enamel erosion, whiten your teeth, and keep them strong and healthy. It’s also the best toothpaste to remove plaque and tartar. LIVFRESH is clinically proven to remove plaque 250% than traditional toothpaste according to a double-blind study.

In summary, teeth are complex structures composed of enamel, dentin, pulp, and cementum. Each component has a unique structure and function, contributing to the overall strength and durability of teeth. Understanding the composition of teeth can help us to appreciate the importance of good dental hygiene and the role it plays in maintaining healthy teeth and gums.