Detailed Mechanism of Action

Livionex Dental Gel provides an unprecedented beneficial impact in oral care . To understand how it accomplishes this, we must examine the process by which plaque forms, and the critical role that calcium plays in its formation and maintenance.

How does oral biofilm form?

We know that bacteria are negatively charged, as are all biological surfaces, including teeth. So, theoretically, there should be no initial colonization of the tooth surface. But this is precisely how calcium plays its critical role. The positively charged calcium ions in saliva migrate to the negatively charged surfaces, reduce the negative charges, and allow bacteria to also come close. Stronger attractive surface forces (Van der Waal's forces) that work at very small distances then take over, allowing for initial colonization.

Once the initial colonization takes place, the bacteria multiply, secrete acids and concentrate calcium around themselves (the amount of calcium in plaque fluid is 2 to 3 times that in saliva). Bacterial secretion of lactic acid have been implicated as the main reason for enamel erosion or caries. This calcium causes a retraction of the bacteria’s flagella and an extension of fibrils called pili. These pili are used by the bacteria to anchor themselves to surfaces and to each other. They are also used as conduits to communicate with each other and to inject toxins into the biological surfaces (gingiva) to which they are anchored. This leads to gingival inflammation and other inflammatory diseases. In addition, the increased calcium concentration causes the bacteria to secrete up to 10 times more exopolysaccaharides. The exopolysaccharides react with the calcium to form the sticky gel mass known as plaque.

See the short video below for an animation of how biofilm forms:



This would lead to several benefits:

  1. Would repel bacteria from the tooth surface and breakup the biofilm very effectively.

2. The negative charge would delay bacterial re-adhesion to the tooth surface for an extended period which leads to slower plaque buildup.

3.  Furthermore, this increased negative charge would attract more positively charged calcium ions to the tooth surface leading to superior remineralization.  

Superior results seen in clinical studies are a result of the above effects.

This seems obvious, so why has it not been done before?

While chelators are widely used in relatively high concentrations in toothpastes for tartar control, the problem with chelating molecules is that they are all negatively charged. Biological surfaces (including biofilms) are negatively charged. Since like charges repel, typical chelators are unable to penetrate the oral biofilm (plaque) effectively. Therefore plaque reduction is primarily based on friction from mechanical brushing.

How has Livionex solved this problem?

Livionex's patent-pending technology overcomes this barrier by activating Edathamil to break down biofilm on teeth and prevent new biofilm from attaching to teeth. Edathamil, a chelator commonly used in preserved foods, by itself does not show much efficacy. However, Livionex’s activated edathamil shows results that no other toothpaste has been able to achieve.

Livionex Dental Gel has been formulated as a thixotropic gel. This means that activated edathamil is released from the gel by the pressure of the toothbrush, thereby delivering it directly into the plaque and onto the tooth surface.

This formulation deposits the activated edathamil onto the tooth surface while brushing and increases the negative charge on the tooth surface, efficiently breaking up the biofilm and forming a barrier which prevents plaque readhesion for a much longer period. Users regularly report the same slick feeling as when they get a professional cleaning. Studies show that this plaque reduction leads to significant benefits in  associated gum health.

This increased negative charge on the tooth surfaces also enables a greater flow of positively charged calcium ions from the saliva to the enamel surface. This additional calcium allows for superior remineralization of enamel, as shown in the studies below.

Activated edathamil technology provides allows superior removal of plaque at significantly lower concentration of a chelator, as compared to, chelator concentrations used in commercial tartar control toothpaste. As an example, Colgate Total utilizes Gantrez (a malic acid copolymer) for tartar control. For a single brushing, Livionex Dental Gel uses less than 15% of chelating capacity as compared to a single brushing of Colgate Total, to provide significantly lower plaque and better oral health as shown in multiple studies.

Summary results are available in the Studies section. Detailed results have been submitted for publication in peer-reviewed research journals.